How To Use The Present Perfect Tense Correctly?

The present perfect tense generally represents an action which has been completed within a period of time that extends up to the present.

Grammar notes

The present perfect is a present tense. So when you use the present perfect, the action cannot be placed at a point of time in the past. But a period of time extending up to the time of speaking can be mentioned. Examples are: for two hours, in the last two years, since 1990 etc. Adverbs like just, recently, as yet, ever, never, already, today, this morning etc., can also be used.

Common errors

He has been to Mumbai means that sometime in the past he went to Mumbai and came back. So he knows Mumbai; he is not a stranger to Mumbai. He has gone to Mumbai means that he is still in Mumbai; hasn’t come back yet.

Note that the present perfect tense can be used in the subordinate clause only when the verb in the principal clause is either in the present or future tense – not in the past tense.