Primary Auxiliaries

The primary auxiliaries are of three kinds: be, do and have. Each of them has different forms.


The auxiliary be has five forms: is, am, are, was and wereBe also has a present participle (being) and a past participle (been) form.


Do has three forms: do, does and did. The forms do and does are used to make questions and negative sentences in the simple present tense. Do is used with plural nouns and pronouns. Does is used with singular nouns and pronouns.

Did is used to make questions and negative sentences in the simple past tense. Note that after do, does and did, we use the infinitive without to.


Have has three forms: have, has and hadHave and has are used to make the present perfect and perfect continuous tense forms. Have is used with plural nouns and pronouns. Has is used with singular nouns and pronouns.

Had is used to make the past perfect and perfect continuous tense forms.

Have is also used to talk about possession, relationships and other ideas.