Participles: active and passive

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When present participles are used like adjectives or adverbs, they have similar meanings to active verbs.

a rolling stone = a stone that rolls
falling leaves= leaves that fall
barking dogs = dogs that bark
a meat-eating animal = an animal that eats meat

When past participles are used like adjectives or adverbs, they have passive meanings.

a burnt child = a child who has been burnt.
a broken mirror = a mirror that has been broken.

Exceptions

A few intransitive verbs have past participles that can be used like adjectives with active meanings.

Examples are:

a fallen leaf = a leaf that has fallen
developed countries = countries that have developed
an escaped prisoner = a prisoner who has escaped
a retired general = a general who has retired

See also

Participles
Participles: active and passive
Participle clauses
A common error with participles