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Nouns and adjectives referring to nations and people

In order to refer to a nation and its affairs it is usually necessary to know four words:

1. the name of the country or the region (e.g. France, England, America, India)
2. the adjective (e.g. French, English, American, Indian)
3. the singular noun used for a person from the country (e.g. a Frenchman/woman, an Englishman/woman, an American, an Indian)
4. the plural expression used for the population as a whole (e.g. the French, the English, the Americans, the Indians)

See the following table for details.

Country/region
America
Belgium
Brazil
Europe
Italy
India
Kenya
Morocco
Norway
Greece
Iraq
Israel
Thailand
China
Japan
Portugal
Switzerland
Britain
England
France
Ireland
Spain
The Holland
Wales
Denmark
Finland
Poland
Scotland
Sweden
Turkey
Adjective
American
Belgian
Brazilian
European
Italian
Indian
Kenyan
Moroccan
Norwegian
Greek
Iraqi
Israeli
Thai
Chinese
Japanese
Portuguese
Swiss
British
English
French
Irish
Spanish
Dutch
Welsh
Danish
Finnish
Polish
Scottish, Scotch
Swedish
Turkish
Person
an American
a Belgian
a Brazilian
a European
an Italian
an Indian
a Kenyan
a Moroccan
a Norwegian
a Greek
an Iraqi
an Israeli
a Thai
a Chinese
a Japanese
a Portuguese
a Swiss
a British person (Briton)
an Englishman/woman
a Frenchman/woman
an Irishman/woman
a Spaniard
a Dutchman/woman
a Welshman/woman
a Dane
a Finn
a Pole
a Scot
a Swede
a Turk
Population
the Americans
the Belgians
the Brazilians
the Europeans
the Italians
the Indians
the Kenyans
the Moroccans
the Norwegians
the Greeks
the Iraqis
the Israelis
the Thais
the Chinese
the Japanese
the Portuguese
the Swiss
the British
the English
the French
the Irish
the Spanish
the Dutch
the Welsh
the Danes
the Finns
the Poles
the Scots
the Swedes
the Turks

Notes

The Scots prefer the adjective Scottish, but other people often use Scotch.

Most British people call themselves Scottish, Welsh, Irish or English. The word Briton is common in newspaper headlines. Brit is also sometimes used to refer to British people.