Modal Auxiliary Verb Shall

Shall is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by an infinitive without to. Shall has no -s in the third person singular.

Questions and negatives are made without do.

With the first person

In the first person shall expresses simple futurity. It is used to show the strong possibility or near certainty of an action or event which is to take place in the future.

With the second or third person

In the second and third persons shall may express a command.

Sometimes it is used to make a promise.

Shall may also express a threat.

Note that shall is becoming increasingly less common in Modern English. Instead of using shall in the second and third person to indicate a command, promise or threat, people often use other verbs and expressions.

For You shall go at once, people often say You will have to go at once, You are to go at once or You must go at once.

Shall: Uses

To make suggestions

Shall can be used with the first person pronouns (I or we) to make suggestions.

To talk about certainty

Shall can show certainty. It is used to say that something will certainly happen, or that you are determined that something will happen.

Sections in this article

Sentence agreement
Sentence agreement: plural subjects
Sentence agreement: collective nouns
Sentence agreement: indefinite pronouns

See also

Common mistakes in the use of nouns
Common mistakes in the use of nouns | Exercise 1
Common mistakes in the use of nouns | Exercise 2
Common mistakes in the use of nouns | Exercise 3

More CBSE English Grammar worksheets

Passive voice worksheet | Simple past tense
Passive voice worksheet | Past continuous tense
Passive voice worksheet | Simple future tense
Passive voice worksheet | Future perfect tense


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