When -ing forms are used like nouns, they are called gerunds. A gerund can be the subject, object or complement of a verb.

  • Flying (subject) makes me sick.
  • Trespassing (subject) is prohibited.
  • Smoking (subject) is injurious to health.
  • We don’t allow smoking (object) in our house.
  • I enjoy swimming (object) in the sea.
  • My favourite activity is reading. (complement)
  • The thought of failing never entered his head. (object of the preposition of)

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