Ought To Have + Past Participle

The structure ought to have + past participle is used to talk about things which were supposed to happen but did not.

  • ought to have sent the money yesterday, but I forgot.
  • She ought to have been more careful.
  • They ought to have repaired the roof before monsoon set in.

This structure can also be used to make guesses about things which are not certain to have happened.

  • They ought to have returned yesterday. (It is probable, but we don’t know whether they have actually returned.)
  • 6 o’clock. She ought to have reached home by now.

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