A word-form which is identical in form to the participle of a verb but which functions as an adjective.
- Barking dogs seldom bite.
- A rolling stone gathers no moss.
- I love the noise of falling rain.
Participial relative clause
A construction which resembles a relative clause but which contains a participle instead of a finite verb.
- Anyone touching that wire will get a shock.
- Half of the people invited to the party didn’t turn up.
- Who is the girl dancing with your brother?
Participial clauses can be replaced by relative clauses.
- Anyone who touches that wire will get a shock.
- Half of the people who were invited to the party didn’t turn up.
- Who is the girl who is dancing with your brother?