Present And Past Participle

Present participle

The verb form ending in –ing.

The present participle combines with the auxiliary be to form the progressive verb forms.

  • She was crying.
  • Alice was knitting.

It can also occur in a participial relative clause.

  • The woman wearing the white shirt is Susie.

The present participle can also occur in certain complements.

  • I saw Alice crossing the road.

Past participle

A past participle is a non-finite verb form like broken, lost, gone and stopped.

With a regular verb, the past participle ends in –ed and is identical in form to the past tense. Examples are: loved, waited, started, ended and decided. With an irregular verb, the past participle takes a variety of forms, though it often ends in –en. Examples are: written, broken, seen, put, drawn, driven and smitten.

The past participle has several uses.

1. It combines with have to form perfect tenses.

  • I have seen her.
  • Have you finished dinner?

2. It combines with be to form passives.

  • They have been invited.
  • I was shocked by his attitude.

3. It can be used as an adjective.

Examples are: dried grapes, boiled cabbage, rotten eggs, a vanished civilization etc.

Manjusha Nambiar

Hi, I am Manjusha. This is my blog where I give English grammar lessons and worksheets.

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