The verb form ending in –ing.
The present participle combines with the auxiliary be to form the progressive verb forms.
- She was crying.
- Alice was knitting.
It can also occur in a participial relative clause.
- The woman wearing the white shirt is Susie.
The present participle can also occur in certain complements.
- I saw Alice crossing the road.
A past participle is a non-finite verb form like broken, lost, gone and stopped.
With a regular verb, the past participle ends in –ed and is identical in form to the past tense. Examples are: loved, waited, started, ended and decided. With an irregular verb, the past participle takes a variety of forms, though it often ends in –en. Examples are: written, broken, seen, put, drawn, driven and smitten.
The past participle has several uses.
1. It combines with have to form perfect tenses.
- I have seen her.
- Have you finished dinner?
2. It combines with be to form passives.
- They have been invited.
- I was shocked by his attitude.
3. It can be used as an adjective.
Examples are: dried grapes, boiled cabbage, rotten eggs, a vanished civilization etc.