Since As An Adverb And Conjunction

Since as an adverb

Since is an adverb of time commonly used with the present perfect or present perfect continuous tense.

  • I haven’t seen him since last week.
  • It has been raining since morning.
  • I have been working since lunchtime.
  • I have been waiting for the parcel since Tuesday.

Since can also mean ‘between some time in the past and the present time’.

  • Last Sunday he went for a drive and has not been seen since.

Since can also be used with past perfect tenses.

  • It took me years to get over my break up with Susie. We had been seeing each other since our university days.

Difference between since and for

Since is used with a point of time in the past. For indicates duration.

Compare:

  • It has been raining since morning. (NOT It has been raining since four hours.)
  • It has been raining for four hours.

Since as a preposition

When since is used as a preposition, present and past tenses are also possible.

  • I haven’t met her since her marriage.
  • Things weren’t going so well since his father’s death.
  • She isn’t doing very well since her operation.

Since as a conjunction

Since can also be used as a subordinating conjunction. We can use perfect or past tenses in the since-clause. A since-clause can show cause or time.

  • Since he hadn’t paid the bill, his electricity was cut off.
  • Since he has apologized, we will not take any further actions against him.
  • Since we have no money, we can’t buy anything.
  • I have admired him since I was a boy.
  • I haven’t seen them since we moved to Mumbai.
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Manjusha Nambiar

I am the founder and editor of http://www.perfectyourenglish.com, http://www.ielts-practice.org, and http://ncertguides.com

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