Verbs that are easily confused
Infinitive / Simple Past / Past Participle
fall / fell / fallen
feel / felt / felt
fill / filled / filled
find / found / found
found / founded / founded
flow / flowed / flowed
fly / flew / flown
lay / laid / laid
lie / lay / lain
lie / lied / lied
leave / left / left
live / lived / lived
raise / raised / raised
rise / rose / risen
strike / struck / struck
stroke / stroked / stroked
wind / wound / wound
wound / wounded / wounded
find – get back something
found – start up an organization or institution
flow (of a liquid) – move
fly – move in the air
lay – put down flat
lie – be down
lie – say things that are not true
raise – put up
rise – go/get up
strike – hit
stroke – pass the hand gently over
wind – turn, tighten a spring etc.
wound – injure in a battle
Verbs easily confused
Fall and fell
Fall is an irregular intransitive verb. Its past tense and past participle forms are: fell and fallen.
Fall / fell / fallen
Be careful; otherwise you will fall off the ladder.
- He fell off the ladder.
Fell is a regular transitive verb. It means ‘chop down a tree’. The past and past participle forms of fell are: felled and felled.
Fell / felled / felled
- The woodcutter felled the tree.
- He was felled by an assassin’s bullet. (= He was killed by an assassin’s bullet.)
Find and found
Find means ‘get back something lost’. Find is an irregular verb. Its past and past participle forms are: found and found.
Find / found / found
- I searched everywhere but couldn’t find my keys.
- His body was found several miles from his home.
Found means ‘start up an organization or institution’. It is a regular verb and forms its past and past participle forms by adding –ed to the base form.
Found / founded / founded
- The college was founded in 1916.
Flow and fly
Flow (of a liquid) = move
Flow is a regular verb and forms its past and past participle forms by adding –ed to the base form.
Flow / flowed / flowed
- Blood flowed from the wound.
- Sap flowed from the gash in the tree.
Fly means ‘move in the air’. Its past and past participle forms are flew and flown.
Fly / flew / flown
- Birds fly in the sky.
Raise and rise
Raise means ‘put up’, ‘make something larger or greater’ and similar ideas.
Raise is regular. Its past and past participle forms are: raised and raised.
Raise / raised / raised
- She raised her hand.
- They have raised the fuel prices again.
Raise can also mean ‘bring up’. With this meaning it is usually used in the passive.
- He was raised by his grandmother. (= He was brought up by his grandmother.)
Rise means ‘get up’ or ‘stand up’.
Past and past participle forms of rise are: rose and risen.
Rise / rose / risen
- He rose from his seat.
- The sun rises in the east.
Strike and stroke
Strike means ‘hit’.
Past and past participle forms of strike are: struck and struck.
Strike / struck / struck
- The car struck a tree.
- The illness can strike at any age.
Stroke means ‘pass the hand gently over’.
Stroke is a regular verb and form the past and past participle forms by adding –ed to the base form.
Wind and wound
Wind means ‘turn, tighten a spring etc’.
Past and participle forms are: wound and wound
- The river winds through the valley.
Wound means ‘injure in a battle’. Wound is a regular verb and forms its past and past participle forms by adding –ed to the base form.
Wound / wounded / wounded
- He was wounded in the battle.