Kinds of Adverb Clauses
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Adverb clauses of cause
Adverb clauses of cause give the reason for the activity mentioned in the main clause. They are introduced by conjunctions like because, since, as and that.
- I paint because I like painting.
- As I could not find him, I left a message with his brother.
- He was furious that his novel was ignored by most reviewers.
- Since he has expressed his regrets, we will take no further action against him.
- I am glad that you like it.
Adverb clauses of purpose
Adverb clauses of purpose express the purpose of the action mentioned in the main clause. They are introduced by conjunctions like that, in order that, so that and lest.
- We eat that we may live.
- She starved herself that her children might be fed.
- I worked hard so that I might win the scholarship.
- Put on your warm clothes lest you catch a chill.
Adverb clauses of result or consequence
Adverb clauses of result state what has happened or what may happen as a result of the action mentioned in the main clause. They are usually introduced by conjunctions like so that, so ... that, such ... that.
- The famine was so severe that thousands perished.
- Such were his words and gestures that the listeners were hypnotized.
- She spoke in such a low voice that few could hear her.
- She was so weak that she could hardly stand.
- It was so hot that I could not go out.
Adverb clauses of condition
Adverb clauses of condition are usually introduced by subordinating conjunctions like if, unless, whether, provided that and so long as.
- If it rains the match will be cancelled.
- That is John, unless I am mistaken.
- You won't pass unless you work hard.
- There will be no trouble as long as you keep your mouth shut.
- You have to do it whether you like it or not.
Adverb clauses of concession or supposition
These clauses are introduced by conjunctions like though, although, even though, even if, while and whereas.
- Though he is poor he is honest.
- The men managed to survive even though they were three days without water.
- Although the elephant was strong it was no match for the agile tiger.